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Phishing Attacks: Understanding the Psychological Tactics Used to Trick You

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Phishing remains one of the top ways that attackers gain access to sensitive information and accounts. It is a form of social engineering, where attackers use psychological tactics to trick victims into revealing sensitive information or taking a specific action. We will explore the physiological reasons behind why phishing is so effective, and what steps we can take to protect ourselves from these attacks.

Phishing is like a bad form of magic, where the attacker distracts and tricks you into believing an illusion. Just like a magician uses misdirection to perform a trick, phishers use social engineering techniques like phishing, baiting, and spear phishing to manipulate and deceive you.

Phishing remains one of the most common and effective ways to attack individuals and organizations. While there are tools that can help prevent or detect some phishing attacks, no tool can completely protect against the human element in phishing attacks. That’s why it’s important to understand the psychological tactics used by phishers, so you can be better equipped to identify and defend against these attacks.

How does phishing attacks work:

One of the reasons that phishing attacks are so effective is that they exploit the way our brains process information. Our brains are designed to process information in two ways: bottom-up and top-down. Bottom-up processing is when we use our senses to gather information and make decisions based on that information. For example, if we see a suspicious email in our inbox, we may look at the sender’s email address and the content of the email to determine if it is legitimate.

Top-down processing, on the other hand, is when we use our prior knowledge and expectations to make decisions. For example, if we receive an email from our bank saying that our account has been locked and we need to take action immediately, our brain may automatically assume that the email is legitimate because it aligns with our expectations of how our bank would communicate with us.

The problem with phishing attacks is that they exploit our brain’s tendency to use top-down processing. Attackers will create fake emails and websites that look legitimate, using logos, branding, and other information that aligns with our expectations. When we receive these fake emails or visit these fake websites, our brain automatically assumes that they are legitimate and we may be more likely to reveal sensitive information or take a specific action.

Phishing attacks have become highly sophisticated and can be difficult for even professionals to spot. These attacks rely on manipulating human emotions, such as fear and greed, in order to trick the victim.

For example, a phisher may send an email or call pretending to be from a bank and claiming that your account has been compromised, or that you need to transfer your money to a different account to avoid having your visa cancelled. Alternatively, they may try to appeal to greed by claiming you have won a lottery or found treasure.

Phishers also use tactics that prey on our focus, such as claiming you are waiting for a delivery or have an issue with a package that needs to be addressed. Even if you are not expecting a package, these types of emails and calls can still be effective in tricking people into falling for the phishing attack.

Types of phishing attacks

There are several different types of phishing attacks that attackers use to trick victims. Some of the most common types of phishing attacks include:

  1. Baiting: This type of attack uses the promise of something enticing, such as a free gift or an opportunity to make a lot of money, to lure victims into revealing sensitive information or taking a specific action.
  2. Spear phishing: This type of attack is more targeted than traditional phishing attacks. Attackers will research their victims and use personal information to make their attacks seem more legitimate. For example, they may use the victim’s name and other information they have gathered to create a fake email that appears to be from a trusted source.
  3. Typosquatting: This type of attack takes advantage of common misspellings of popular websites. For example, attackers may create a fake website that is similar to a popular bank’s website, but with a slightly different spelling. When victims accidentally enter the wrong URL, they are taken to the fake website and tricked into entering their sensitive information.

How to protect yourself from Phishing attacks:

We need to train our brains to look for the “bottom-up” approach. This means looking at all the details and pointers, such as the email address and domain, to determine if something is legitimate., but once we train our brains to look for these details, we can start to spot the difference between real and fake emails and websites.

The “bottom-up” approach to identifying phishing attacks involves looking at all the details and pointers that can help you determine if something is legitimate or not. Here are a few examples of what you can look for when using the bottom-up approach:

  • Email address: One of the most obvious signs of a phishing email is a suspicious sender’s email address. For example, if you receive an email from a bank, but the email address doesn’t look like it belongs to the bank (e.g., “[email protected]” instead of “[email protected]”), it’s likely a phishing attempt.
  • Domain name: Another red flag is a suspicious domain name in the email’s links or in the URL of a website. For example, if you receive an email from a bank asking you to click on a link, but the link’s domain doesn’t match the bank’s actual domain (e.g., “” instead of “”), it’s likely a phishing attempt.
  • Attachments: Be cautious about opening attachments in emails, especially if they come from unfamiliar senders. Malicious attachments can contain viruses or other malware that can compromise your device.
  • Urgency: Many phishing emails try to create a sense of urgency to get you to act quickly without thinking. If an email asks you to take immediate action (e.g., “Your account will be suspended if you don’t click this link right now!”), it’s worth taking a moment to verify the legitimacy of the request before taking any action.

By training your brain to look for these details and pointers, you can start to spot the difference between real and fake emails and websites and protect yourself from phishing attacks. Remember If you’re unsure about the legitimacy of a call or email, it’s usually safe to disconnect the call or not click on the email and instead visit the legitimate website or call the legitimate phone number to perform the action. This can help protect you from falling victim to a phishing attack.

Phishing attacks will continue to evolve and become more advanced, so it is important that we change our behaviors and take steps to protect ourselves.

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